Distances are vast between many of Peru’s main highlights, making air travel a popular option. There are regular flights linking the main cities of Lima, Cusco, Arequipa, Trujillo and Iquitos. There are also less frequent flights operating between Lima and Juliaca (near to Puno) and between Lima/Cusco and Puerto Maldonado in the Amazon jungle. The main airline, with the most flights, is LAN Peru, however Star Peru and Aero Condor Peru are cheaper alternatives covering the main places of interest.
The bus network in Peru is vast. It’s the most common form of transport, fares are relatively cheap and services are frequent, however, buses are of varying quality. There are number of different classes available, with the larger companies offering bus-camas (bed buses), which are excellent for long overnight journeys, of which there are often many if you are in Peru for some time. Alternatively for most journeys, semi-cama (reclining seats with plenty of legroom) would suffice. For shorter trips under 6 hours there is usually only one option, the economico bus, which is usually packed with locals, stops every 5 mins to pick up some more locals and is often a very beaten up old bus, but then this is all part of the fun of travelling around Peru.
PeruRail offers daily services between Cusco and Aguas Calientes (the town at the foot of Machu Picchu) and between Cusco and Puno near the shores of a Lake Titicaca tour approximately 3 times a week. This service is however often heavily delayed or even cancelled, so do not rely on it to get you to Cusco in time for the start of your Inca trail trek.
In most town and cities, the best way to get about is on foot. Local micros and combis are hard to use, as it can be hard to work out when and where they go, but if you can speak a little spanish, they are the cheapest form of transport. Taxis are everywhere and are a little more expensive, always make sure you pick a taxi with a lit company sign on the roof, not just a sticker on the windscreen (as these are unlicensed) and always always agree a price in advance.
Trek through the snow-capped Andes, go island hopping on Lake Titicaca, try an Amazon jungle lodge adventure and follow the Inca trail to epic Machu Picchu. Build your own Peru adventure.